Apple belongs to the Rosaceae family and its original habitat is Eastern Europe and Mediterranean coasts. Its leaves are simple and congressional.
The flowers are complex and in bunches of 3-8 in the form of cluster inflorescences on short branches. The apple fruit is a false type, the apple tree is a rootstock, but most of its cultivars are self-pollinating.
In addition to the sub-branches, identification of cloves (dard), tentacles (brandy), lambord (a branch that is shorter than brandy and is about 3-10 cm long) which are special members of seeded fruit trees is of particular importance during pruning.
Apple has many wild and domestic species, most of which are used either as a base or as a fruit plant. The apple tree has a special economic value due to its adaptability to the climatic conditions of most regions of Iran, suitable fruiting, the ability to export and transform the product.
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Apple has ideal growth and production in cold and moderate weather conditions. But due to the fact that the plant is resistant to cold and there are many bases compatible with different conditions, it is practically possible to grow apples in most places.
The apple tree tolerates low temperatures up to -40 degrees Celsius. The fruit of apple trees planted in high altitudes show more storage properties. If an area is so hot that the cold required for tree growth is not provided (1000-1600 hours of temperature less than 7°C).
apple planting in that area is not economical. Due to the superficial nature of the roots, in dry areas, this plant suffers from water shortage.
The suitable soil for apple tree cultivation is lemon and deep soil. The depth of the soil should be 1-2 meters and there should be enough organic matter in it.
Experience has shown that apples grown in light soils have better color. At the apple planting site, the underground water level should not be higher than 2 meters.
Apple is propagated both by planting seeds and grafting on it (sexually) and by asexual methods. In the seed propagation method, by using different seeds, the size of the tree can be controlled and determined as desired. For this purpose, separate and specific seeds are prepared.
The seed selected for planting should be large, ripe and healthy. Seeds need to be stratified before planting. Seed hoarding and planting in the main land are both possible. But it is better to plant the ready-to-plant seeds in the treasury first.
The seed planting depth in the tank is 3 cm and the distance between the dimensions is 5-10 cm. When the green seeds and seedlings have three leaves, the unsuitable and weak seedlings are removed and the rest are transferred to the second tank and planted there at a distance of 10 x 30 cm. The next year.
in late spring or early autumn, seedlings are transplanted. Commonly used for T-grafted apples.